FROM THE NCADV FACT SHEET:
FROM THE NCADV VERMONT FACT SHEET:
In 1995-1997, Vincent Felitti and Robert Anda conducted the landmark ACEs study (with the CDC and Kaiser Permanente) to examine the long-term health effects correlated with adverse childhood experiences. They asked over 17,000 predominantly white, middle-class participants to self-report on whether any of a list of ten experiences had occurred during their childhood. 60% of participants reported having experiences that fell into at least one category from the Adverse Childhood Experience list.
Another way of saying this is that 60% had at least one adverse childhood experience from the following list:
The study found that a higher ACEs score is correlated with increased incidence of:
In 2012-2013, the Philadelphia ACE Project undertook to expand the list of ACEs to examine the presence of “community-level adversity” in an urban environment, including discrimination, feeling unsafe in your neighborhood, being bullied, living in foster care, and witnessing community violence.
The findings from their initial study, which included predominately BIPOC, individuals from low-income households, show that the original, household-level ACEs inadequately depict the full range of childhood adversity when taking socioeconomic and racial realities into account.
The ACEs and expanded ACEs lists may have opened the door for researchers who study the impacts of systemic oppression to quantitatively demonstrate the mental and physical health effects of family and community/systemic adversity. The model of the ACEs study is being taken seriously by the medical, public, and mental health industries, and perhaps we can use this model to illustrate the far-reaching consequences of systemic oppression against people for reasons of race, class, ethnicity, gender identity, neurodivergence, ability, and more.
Below is an extensive list of ways trauma can harm child development from the National Childhood Trauma Network’s 2003 white paper on childhood trauma.